Saturday, February 25, 2012

Gastroenteritis (also known as stomach flu, stomach flu and stomach virus, although unrelated to influenza) is characterized by severe inflammation of the digestive tract involving both the stomach and small intestine resulting in acute diarrhea and vomiting. It can be transferred through contact with contaminated food and water. This inflammation is caused most commonly by infection from certain viruses or less often by bacteria, their toxins (eg, SEB), parasites, or adverse reaction to something in the food or medicine.
At least 50% of cases of gastroenteritis due to foodborne illness caused by norovirus. other 20% of cases, and the majority of severe cases in children, caused by rotavirus. Other significant viral agents include adenovirus and astrovirus. Different species of bacteria can cause gastroenteritis, including Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Yersinia, Vibrio cholerae, and others. Some sources of infection is not properly prepared food, meat dishes heated, seafood, dairy, and bakery products. Each organism causes slightly different symptoms but all result in diarrhea. colitis, inflammatory bowel, can also be present.
Risk factors include consumption of foods that are not properly prepared or contaminated water and travel or live in areas of poor sanitation. It is also common for river swimmers to become infected during the rains as a result of contaminated water runoff.

Gastroenteritis Classification :
Infectious gastroenteritis is caused by various bacteria and viruses. Important to consider infectious gastroenteritis as a diagnosis per exclusionem. A few loose stools and vomiting may be caused by systemic infections such as pneumonia, septicemia, urinary tract infection and even meningitis. Surgical conditions like appendicitis, intussusception and, rarely, even Hirschsprung can mislead doctors. endocrine disorders (eg thyrotoxicosis and Addison's disease) is a disorder that can cause diarrhea. Also, pancreatic insufficiency, short bowel syndrome, Whipple disease, celiac disease, and laxative abuse should be excluded as a possibility.
  • Bacterial Gastroenteritis 
For a list of bacteria that cause gastroenteritis, see above. pseudomembranous colitis is an important cause of diarrhea in patients treated with antibiotics is often new. 'Traveler's diarrhea is usually a type of bacterial gastroenteritis.
If severe gastroenteritis in children requiring hospital admission, it is important to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections. Bacteria, Shigella and Campylobacter, for example, and parasites such as Giardia can be treated with antibiotics.
  • Viral Gastroenteritis 
The virus causes gastroenteritis include rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus. Viruses do not respond to antibiotics and infected children usually make a full recovery after several days. Children hospitalized with gastroenteritis are routinely tested for rotavirus A to gather surveillance data relevant to the epidemiological effects of rotavirus vaccination program. Children are routinely tested also for norovirus, a highly contagious and requires special isolation procedures to avoid transmission to other patients. Other methods, electron microscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, are used in research laboratories.


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