Newborn Anemia

Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Newborn Anemia

Anemia is one of the most common blood disorders that occur when the number of red blood cells in the body is too small. This can be a problem because red blood cells contain hemoglobin which carries oxygen to body tissues. Anemia can cause various complications including organ disorders.
Three possible underlying cause of anemia:
  • The destruction of red blood cells that excessive
  • Blood loss
  • Production of red blood cells that are not optimal
Anemia can be caused by other things such as genetic disorders, nutritional deficiencies (iron or vitamin deficiency), infections, cancer or exposure to drugs or toxins.
Anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells
Hemolytic anemia
Appears as red blood cells were destroyed faster than normal (normal red blood cell age 120 days, at the age of hemolytic anemia red blood cells is shorter.) Bone marrow producing red blood cells can not meet the body's need for red blood cells. This could be due to various causes, sometimes the infection and drugs (antibiotics and anti spasm) can be the cause.
Frontier autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system can mistake of thinking that red blood cells are foreign objects that were destroyed.
Inherited disorders that cause red blood cell disorders can also cause anemia, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenises (G6PD), sferositosis hereditary.
Anemia due to blood loss
Blood loss can cause anemia, due to excessive bleeding, surgery, or problems with blood clotting. Little blood loss in the long term, such as bleeding from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can also cause anemia. A lot of blood loss from menstruation in adolescents or women can also cause anemia. All these factors will increase the body's need for iron, because iron is needed for producing new red blood cells.
Anemia due to red blood cell production that is not optimal.
Aplastic anemia occurs when bone marrow can not form red blood cells in sufficient quantities. This can be due to viral infection, exposure to toxic chemicals, radiation or drugs (antibiotics, anti spasm or cancer drugs).
In the newborn physiological anemia can occur, this is normal when hemoglobin decreased infant at age 2 months. This is considered normal and no treatment is needed because the baby will start producing its own red blood cells.

Anemia can occur when the body is unable to form healthy red blood cells due to iron deficiency. Iron is very important in the formation of hemoglobin and iron deficiency can result in iron deficiency anemia, the most common form of anemia that occurs primarily in children younger than 2 years. Children who drink too much milk cows at risk for iron deficiency anemia.
Signs and Symptoms
If your child is experiencing early symptoms of anemia may include pale skin or a reduction in pink color on the lips and under the nails. These changes occur slowly can be so difficult to recognize. Other signs:
  • Fussy
  • Tired, lethargic
  • Dizziness, light and fast heartbeat
If the anemia caused by excessive destruction of red blood cells then the other symptoms such as jaundice, yellow color in the whites of the eyes, enlarged spleen and urine color, such as tea.
In infants and toddlers, iron deficiency anemia can cause developmental disorders and behaviors such as decreased motor activity, social interaction and concentration.
Diagnosis of anemia
Doctors need the help of laboratory tests in addition to physical examination to diagnose anemia. Complete blood test can show red blood cells is less than normal. Other tests:
  • Peripheral blood smears: blood is smeared on glasses for viewing under a microscope, which can help find the cause of anemia
  • Tests for iron content: including body iron levels and ferritin, can help determine if anemia due to iron deficiency
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis: Used to detect abnormal hemoglobin in the blood and to diagnose sickle cell anemia, thalassemia and other congenital anemia
  • Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration: to help if the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. It's the only way to diagnose aplastic anemia and diseases that affect bone marrow (such as leukemia) as the cause of anemia
  • Calculate reticulocyte: young red blood cell count, helping to determine whether red blood cell production at normal levels

Treatment of anemia is adapted to the cause. It's important to not assume all the symptoms in children due to iron deficiency. Make sure your child examined by a doctor first.
If the child has iron deficiency, the doctor will give extra iron which usually must be consumed during the 3 months to build reserves of iron in the body. The doctor also will add iron-rich foods in the diet of children and reduce the consumption of cow's milk.
If adolescent girls have anemia and irregular menstrual cycles, your doctor may give hormonal treatment to help regular menstrual cycles.
If the anemia caused by deficiency of folic acid and B12, the provision of additional substances should be carried out, although this is rare in children.
If anemia is caused by infection, so when the infection is passed or treated generally the situation will improve. If for some drugs the doctor will stop or change drugs unless the benefits of the drug exceeds the side effects.
Management of the severe anemia can be (depending on the cause):

Red blood cell transfusions
Drugs to fight infection or stimulate the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
In some cases of sickle cell anemia, thalassemia and aplastic anemia bone marrow transplant procedure may be an option.
Prevents Anemia
Anemia can be prevented depends on the cause. Anemia due to genetic disorders can not be prevented. But you can prevent iron deficiency as a form of anemia most often occurs.
Before you follow this advice make sure you discuss with your doctor:
Consumption of dairy: the consumption of cow's milk may cause infants to lose iron from the digestive and the consumption of cow's milk in large quantities can cause the baby does not taste in eating other food sources. Cow's milk should not consume more than 700 ml / day.
Iron-fortified cereal: This product can help your baby get enough iron, especially in the transition to solid foods

Balanced diet: encourage your child to consume foods rich in iron: iron-fortified cereals, red meat, egg yolks, green vegetables, yellow vegetables and fruits, potatoes, tomatoes, raisins. If your child is vegetarian, children need extra attention to ensure adequate iron because the iron from animal sources is better absorbed by the body than iron from vegetables. Some combinations of foods can also reduce iron absorption, eg coffee or tea with meals can reduce the amount of iron absorbed. Foods rich in vitamin C helps iron absorption.
Caring for children with anemia
Types, causes of anemia and weight will determine the treatment required. In general, children with anemia will be more tired than others, so that necessary adjustments to physical activity. If the spleen is enlarged then children avoid sports with physical contact due to risk of spleen rupture or bleeding in the event of collision.


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