Newborn NEC

Friday, July 1, 2011

Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Newborn
What is NEC?
NEC is one of the diseases that can be on premature infants in the first weeks of life. NEC involves infection and inflammation that causes damage to the intestine or part of the intestine. NEC about one in 2000-4000 births or between 1-5% of cases in the Intensive Care Unit Of The Newborn.

NEC usually occurs in infants aged 2 weeks after feeding begins. About 10% weight infants <1500 grams have NEC. Premature babies have a bowel that has not been functioning perfectly sensitive to changes in blood flow and is susceptible to infection. Premature babies can have problems with blood circulation, oxygen and digestion thus increasing the possibility of having NEC.
What causes the NEC?
The exact cause of NEC is unknown, but several theories trying to explain. The possibility of intestinal tissue considered premature infants is still weak with the low blood flow and oxygen and when the digestive process begins, the food moves along the intestine, the normal bacteria in the gut wall to enter and damage the intestinal tissues. Intestinal damage that occurs can affect some parts of the intestine or can be more severe and involve a broader portion of the intestine.

Babies are not able to continue the process of food (milk) and looked ill when the bacteria continues to spread along the intestinal wall and sometimes enter the bloodstream. In cases of severe NEC can occur holes in the bowel (perforation) that make the bacteria out of the gut and can infect the abdominal cavity. Because the baby's immune system is immature then with prompt treatment of NEC can also have serious complications.

According to experts of other factors that may increase the risk of NEC is making formula, formula or not the speed of maturation of the intestinal mucous membrane. Exclusively breastfed infants can also experience the NEC but with lower risk. Another theory is that infants have difficulty in the process of birth with impaired blood supply and oxygen to the digestive tract and NEC can occur. Infants with the number of red blood cells above normal (polycytemia) have a higher risk of having NEC. Red blood cells causing too much blood thickens and reduces oxygen supply to the intestine.
Signs and Symptoms
The symptoms of NEC may resemble other digestive disorders, including:
  • Lazy in eating (milk)
  • Decrease in bowel sounds
  • Belly bulge and tense
  • Green vomiting
  • Redness in the stomach
  • Increased stool, or a reduction in the amount of feces
  • Bloody feces
NEC Signs which are not typically included stopping breathing, low heart rate, diarrhea, not responsive, the body temperature up and down.
Diagnosis and Treatment
The diagnosis of NEC is usually confirmed the presence of an abnormal gas pattern in the intestine of the X-ray examination. "Bubbly" from the gas in the intestinal wall, a large vein in the liver, or the presence of air outside the bowel within the abdominal cavity.
Most of the infants with NEC treated medically and the symptoms disappear without surgery. The treatment can be:
  • Fasting
  • Nasal-gastric hose to remove air and fluid from the intestines and stomach
  • Fluids through an IV to provide fluids and nutrients
  • Antibiotics for infections
  • Periodic examination and abdominal X-ray
The size of the circumference of the baby's stomach examined and considered carefully, periodic blood tests are also done to determine whether or not bacteria. Feces examined to determine whether there is blood or not. If the belly swell and disrupt the process of breathing supplemental oxygen or respiratory assistance devices (ventilator) may be used.
If the infant responds to re-repair the baby is given food (milk) within 72 hours, although in many cases of delayed feeding and antibiotics are given untuk7-10 days. If there are hole in the bowel (perforation) then surgery.

Most of the infants with NEC can recover and not experience disruption in digestion. In some cases, scarring and narrowing of the bowel may occur and cause complications. Another problem could be interference absorption of food, it often occurs in infants who had surgery for NEC and there are parts of the intestine is cut.
Caring for your baby
NEC can be very scary for parents. Parents can feel a little worried because the baby was not given food. Remember that the baby will soon return to normal diet after a period of treatment. When that time comes then you will be able to care for your baby.


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